Oil shale processing technology is based on the "Galoter" method (1968 United Nations Forum classification). This method was developed by G.M. Krzhizhanovsky Power Engineering Institute (Moscow, Russia). The method consists in the fact that the heat necessary for decomposition of raw materials is provided by its own hot ashes when mixed in a continuous process of raw materials and the ash is re-heated in the furnace due to heat generated by burning coke residue feedstock.
The method was studied between 1947 and 1963 on the stand and pilot plants with the capacity of the shale input from 2.5 to 200 tons per day (UTT-2.5 at the "Ilmarine" engineering plant, Tallinn; UTT-150, UTT-200 at "Kiviõli" Oil Shale Processing & Chemicals Plant). The results of research led to the creation of industrial plants for oil shale processing using a solid heat carrier, labeled "UTT" (Russian “установка твердого теплоносителя” - solid heat carrier installation) with an indication of the daily capacity of the feedstock; for example, UTT-200 means 200 tons of shale per day. In 1966, the UTT-500 Oil Shale Processing & Chemicals Plant "Kiviõli" was built; it was exploited up to the launch of more powerful units in 1981. During the whole period of UTT-500 operation, there was processed about 2.06 mln. tons of shale, received 276 thousand tons of the commercial shale oil and more than 109mln.m3 of the semi-coke gas with 41,9-46,1 MJ/nm3 heat of combustion.
On the basis of the design experience, exploitation and researches of this plant, FSUE “ATOMENERGOPROEKT SPb"(previous L.О. “Teploproect”) together with Estonia and the RSFSR research and design organizations developed the project of the head plant of UTT-3000 with capacity 3330 tons of the shale per a day or 1mln. tons per year. Plants were constructed and commissioned during the period of 1980 - 1984 on the Estonian power plant and operate efficiently to the present. Two of those UTT-3000 installations operating nowadays with high efficiency, company operator Eesti Energial called them Eneit-140
Between 2007 and 2009 the plant «Petroter» was built and commissioned on the project of JSC "SPb ATOMENERGOPROEKT" on the basis of one UTT-3000 installation at the site of VKG Oil AS company (Kohtla-Jarve, Estonia). The total time of UTT installations operation is about 40 years, which means the facilities and technology have long been mastered in commercial operation.
Today TTU-Ltd company owns 24 patents for the initial proved technology applied in to UTT-3000 installation.
JSC "SPb ATOMENERGOPROET" has exclusive rights to design UTT-3000 installations.